These notes were compiled from English language resources as a personal reference for my historical re-enactment activities, were not originally intended as a formal scholarly work, or for public release. I am not a credentialed historian, and cannot read Polish or Latin. The bibliography may not include all sources. When sources disagreed, I chose the best synthesis in my own judgment. Comments and speculations are my own, and may not align with scholarly consensus.
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1092 Exiles (mostly to Bohemia), and dissidents, kidnap (rescue?) Zbigniew from monastery, and 'invade' Silesia, with Czech support!? Welcomed by Silesian magnates. Magnus, castellan of Wroclaw, agrees to act as 'guardian and spokesman' for Zbigniew (guardian? or jailer?)
1093 Negotiations unproductive, Wladyslaw Herman attacks Silesia with Hungarian reinforcements. BUT! Laszlo of Hungary, angry over deaths of Boleslaw Smialy and Mieszko, 'enters' Polish camp, takes wojewoda Sieciech, and heir Boleslaw Krzywousty (Wrymouth) prisoner! (Force? or Stealth?). Wladyslaw concedes, legitimizes Zbigniew (ELDEST!). and sanctions his residence in Silesia. Kujavia declares for Zbigniew.
1094? Sieciech escapes (how? friends?) Hungarians. Sieciech incites Wladyslaw to have another go at Zbigniew (how?). Sieciech's 'ties with the Silesian Mozni (?? -Manteuffel)' allow Wladyslaw to attack. Zbigniew (and ex-exiled friends?), lacking aid of Silesian Nobility (Magnus of Wroclaw??), escape to Kujavia. Wladyslaw defeats Kujavia, despite Pomeranian reinforcements. Zbigniew surrenders to Wladyslaw under guarantee of personal safety, but imprisoned in Sieciech's custody, in Sieciech's castle (treatment?).
1097 Anti-Sieciech magnates force Wladyslaw to confirm legitimacy of Zbigniew.
1099 Pope Urban II dies.
1100 Anti-pope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna) dies.
1097 - 1102 Zbigniew and Boleslaw Krzywousty, with support of
pro-Piasts, force Wladyslaw Herman into transfer of power.
Zbigniew - Wielkopolska, Kujavia, Sieradz, and Leczca.
Boleslaw - Malopolska, Silesia, Lubusz, small area of W. Wielkopolska
Wladyslaw - Mazovia (Zbigniew to inherit), and major cities in Boleslaw's area (Boleslaw to inherit). Also retains position as Senior/Princeps.
Somehow, Sieciech left in place, continues intrigues. 'Sieciech ... set many traps for both young men and ...turned the father's heart and mind away from his sons. In the cities that were granted to the young princes, he placed stewards and administrators of his own family or men of lower station. They were subject to the young princes, but [Sieciech] inclined them through his perfidious cunning to be disobedient.' -- Gall Anonim
Wladyslaw orders Boleslaw vs Czechs. 'Circumstances' (?) made him suspect set up for assassination. Father/sons break. Princes call assembly in Wroclaw. Make case vs Sieciech. Assembly agrees, prepares to ouster Sieciech by force. Both sides prepare for civil war: '... took up positions with their armies ... in Zarnowiec [on Pilica river] ... finally convinced their father, through the influence of dignitaries and their own threats... ... said that the father also pledged ... never allow Sieciech to regain his previous rank. When Sieciech returned to the city which bears his name [Siecieshow, near Deblin, on Vistula - Gall says Sieciech built this city himself.(?)], the brothers came before their father humbly, calmly, and without weapons, and offered him their devotion, not as independent princes, but with bowed heads as knights [vassals] and his subjects. Then the father, and the sons, and all the nobles, now united, together with the whole army followed in pursuit of Sieciech... ...the prince himself [Wladyslaw], when it was thought that he was sound asleep, and without the knowledge of anyone but three of his most devoted confidants, quietly left the camp and crossed the Vistula by boat ... to reach Sieciech. All the nobility were outraged and declared that to abandon his sons and so many nobles and the army is ... a madman's choice. Immediately an assembly was called and it was decided that Boleslaw should take Sandomierz and Krakow, the largest and nearest seats of the kingdom, and he accepted their vows of fealty that they would be subject to his rule. Zbigniew was to hurry to Mazovia and take ... Plock ... but Zbigniew was intercepted by his father and did not achieve what he intended. [...] And after a time the sons assembled the nobles and an army and made camp on the opposite shore of the Vistula from Plock, and the Archbishop Marcin, a faithful elder with great foresight, ameliorated ... but with great difficulty between the father and the sons. Prince Wladyslaw, it is said, reaffirmed his vow... Then Boleslaw returned all the capitals ... sinewed to his father, but the father did not keep to the agreement... But finally the sons forced the father to exile Sieciech from Poland and thereby satisfy their demands.' -- Gall Anonim
WHAT was Sieciech's hold on Wladyslaw? Wladyslaw caught up in 'Master Plan'? Homosexual lover? Heterosexual lover in Sieciech's following? Blackmail? drugs? magic? WHAT?
Anonim reports Sieciech did return to Poland, but not to power. (Blinded, as was common?)
Sieciech's actions, and lack of Senior designate on Wladyslaw's death greatly increased magnates' power vs ducal rule. Office of Palatine left vacant until after Wladyslaw's death.
Zbigniew - older and calmer, proponent of 'good neighbor policy,' and diplomacy over military action.
Boleslaw Krzywousty - like namesakes, enthusiastic and skilled warrior. Liked and respected by knights. Especially eager to (re-)annex rich Pomeranian Oder basin, in accord with long-standing Piast policy.
1103 Boleslaw weds Zbyslawa, daughter of grand prince of Kiev, Sviatopolk, and sister of Jaroslav of Volynia. Making alliances early for eventual showdown with Zbigniew. (Blame Boleslaw's ambition, Zbigniew probably thought he was doing quite well enough for a concubine's bastard.) Zbigniew makes treaty with Pomeranians (who knew they were on Krzywousty's hit list), and the Czechs, moving thereby towards the Imperial axis. (connections from Saxony?)
1104 Zbigniew incites Czechs and Pomeranians to attack on two
fronts. Boleslaw's lands badly ravaged, expansionism stalled.
Boleslaw makes pact with Kalman of Hungary. If empire attacks one, the other will hold off the Czechs. Overtures to Apostolic See (hostile to Czech/Empire axis).
1105 Wladyslaw II Wygnaniec (the Exile) born to Boleslaw and Zbyslawa.
1106 Henry IV dies. Boleslaw and Zbigniew make pact; 'one without the other will not enter into agreements with enemies, whether in regard to war or peace, nor will one without the other enter into any alliance, and that each will aid the other against his enemies and provide all necessary aid.'(Gall Anonim). Boleslaw immediately marches on Pomerania. Zbigniew refuses aid, and sends his army to turn Boleslaw back at Pomeranian border. Zbigniew wants Pomeranians as allies, not raiders taking vengeance on his lands for Boleslaw's attack. Boleslaw 'convinces' Czechs to remain neutral (threat? bribe?) and attacks Zbigniew. Takes Kalisz, Gniezno, Spicymierz, and Leczyca. Gathers Hungarian and Rus troops and digs Zbigniew out of Mazovia. Zbigniew surrenders, and is left with only Mazovia held in fief, not independent principality.
1107 Boleslaw attacks and occupies Pomeranian (Prussian?) Bialogrod (Belgard) and Kolobrzeg. Zbigniew fails to send troops due from vassal: 'Realizing that his brother did not honor any of the things he had pledged and vowed and that he was a hindrance to the entire country because he was dangerous and guilty, Boleslaw exiled him from all the lands of the Polish Kingdom, and with the aid of those who supported [Zbigniew] and defended the city on the borders of the state, he (Boleslaw) defeated the Hungarians and Russians.' -- Gall Anonim
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Why was Boleslaw defeating his allies, the Hungarians and Russians, with the aid of Zbigniew's supporters, after exiling Zbigniew? Are these his foreign auxiliaries on a rampage, or going independent? It's probably not a double-cross attack, on either side, because Boleslaw honors his mutual assistance treaty with Kalman in 1108. Perhaps his foreign troops from the Mazovian, or Pomeranian campaign, (after being released?) attacked some 'city on the border' of Zbigniew's fief (Mazovia). (Excuse for lack of support in Pomerania?) Then, after exiling Zbigniew, Boleslaw helps repel the attackers, possibly improving image with local magnates. (Conceivably, a truly devious plot: Boleslaw arranges for attack, and either plans with attackers that they'll retreat (with whatever loot they've taken) when he attacks, or just double-crosses them, with an easy victory likely due to surprise factor.)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Zbigniew seeks aid in Bohemia and Empire. Continuing theme of Polish disunity just when Empire is vulnerable, possibly Boleslaw gained support as leader best able to confront growing Imperial threat under Henry V. Strong enemies support unity. Or else attack by Empire was response to resurgent Polish strength and unity.
1107 Winter - Fall 1108 Boleslaw assaults cities on routes through Notec swamps, frequent raids back-and-forth between Poles, Poms, and Prussians. Archbishop Marcin almost captured in one Pomeranian raid deep into Boleslaw's territories.
1109 Pomeranians and Czechs ally, agree to support Zbigniew for
throne, and coordinate attacks on Mazovia, and Silesia.
1110 Boleslaw aids exile Borivoj to Svatopluk's vacant throne.
Borivoj overthrown quickly and exiled by brother Vladislav,
Boleslaw tries again with youngest brother, Sobeslav.
1111 Daughter, name unknown, born to Boleslaw/Zbyslawa.
Peace treaty with Czechs: Both sides agree to accept and adequately enfranchise pretenders, and agree not to support domestic dissent in neighboring states. Zbigniew returns -- blinded and soon dies.
'Zbigniew followed the advice of foolish people, ... and came to Boleslaw not as a humble man, but as a defiant one, ... ordering a sword to be carried before him among an orchestra of musicians beating on drums and playing zithers, and exhibiting the air of a sovereign and not a subject, [not intending] to submit to his brother's orders, but himself to order his brother. Certain sensible people interpreted this in a way that even Zbigniew had not intended, and gave Boleslaw such advice that, because he believed it, [he will always grieve for his actions] ... [It was said]... "This man who was crushed by so many defeats, and exiled for so long, now [even uncertain of his status], arrives proud and with such pomp--what will he do ... if any power is given to him in Poland?" [It was also reported that Zbigniew had arranged for Boleslaw to be stabbed.]' -- Gall Anonim
(Of course Gall may be recounting a convenient excuse.)
1112 Unsuccessful campaign to regain Naklo and Kraina.
1112 - 1116 Gall(us) Anonim actually writing his chronicles of
Polish history to date. Gallus likely a Benedictine monk from
There is a Benedictine monastery of St. Gall in the Swiss-German canton of St Gallen, at which another Anonymous Monk of St Gall (called so by scholars, not the monk himself) wrote a biography of Charlemagne in 884. Though confused, inaccurate and spiced with outright lies, this book was widely circulated and survives to this day. Somehow this seems a more likely place of origion, and possibly an inspiration, for Poland's "Gall Anonim" than Provence.
1113 Poles take Wyszogrod (Wiessegrad), Naklo and Kraina, and perhaps Swiecie (Schwetz), opens route through Notec swamps, holds key to Vistula basin. Gall Anonim's excellent chronicles end.
1113-1119 Conquest of Eastern Pomerania. Pomeranian revolt in 1117 led by Boleslaw's wojewoda and preceptor, Skarbimir. Reason for treason unknown (magnate/royal power struggle? Religious differences?). Revolt suppressed. Skarbimir, despite long service, blinded.
1119-1123 Campaigns vs West Pomerania - lower Oder and Parsenta (Persante) basins. Final Holdouts Szczecin (Stettin), Uznam (Usedom) and Wolin (All islands or protected by water). Szczecin taken during winter when surrounding water was frozen. Notec area annexed to Wielkopolska, Vistula basin ruled by Polish governors recruited from local dynasties. Western Pomerania remained under Prince Warcislaw - Price - Recognition of Polish suzerainty, troop levy, tribute, and conversion to Christianity. Christianity important to tie area to episcopate of Gniezno.
1124 Primary Mission headed by Otto, bishop of Bamberg. Boleslaw's chaplain, Wojciech, accompanies Otto, and nominated as first Bishop of Pomerania.
**** Somewhere in here is destruction of major temple to pagan deity Trzyglawa in Szczecin. Temple was large, frescoed and contained a live black horse consulted as an oracle. ****
1125 Boleslaw IV Kedzierzawy (curly-haired), born to Boleslaw and Salomea, daughter of count of Berg.
1126 Mieszko III Stary (the Old) born to Boleslaw/Salomea.
1127 Henryk born to Boleslaw/Salomea.
Anti-Polish revolt in West Pomerania, and pagan revival in Szczecin and Wolin. Such revolts, and political maneuvers between Gniezno/Boleslaw, Archbishop Norbert of Magdeburg, and Otto of Bamberg/Emperor Lothar of Supplinberg, greatly impede Christianization of area. East Pomerania incorporated into Gniezno, Poznan, and the new diocese of Kujavia, and Lubusz (intended to be expanded into W. Pom.).
1128-1137 Ten (10) children born to Boleslaw/Salomea, six daughters survive birth/infancy (WHAT A BREEDER WAS SALOMEA!!)
1129-1130 Warcislaw revolts again. Poles suppress revolt with aid of Danes.
1131 Danes defeated by Empire. Ally, Istvan of Hungary dies. Successor is Bela II, related to prince of Bohemia, and friendly towards Empire.
1132 Poland and Rus support Boris for throne of Hungary. Total loss. Czechs attack and ravage Silesia repeatedly 1132-1134.
1133 Pope Innocent II, pressured by Lothar and Norbert, issues Bulls denying independence of Gniezno and Lund (Scandinavian metropolitan). Polish bishoprics made subordinate to Magdeburg. Appeals filed, and overtures made to 'antipope' Anacletus II.
1134 Albert the Bear new ruler of Nordmark.
1136 Albert the Bear defeats ducal family of Brzezans, and occupies area on east bank of Elbe.
1138 Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy (the Just) born to Boleslaw/Salomea.
Lothar II dies.
1138-1139 Obodrites ruled by Przybyslaw in west, and Niklot in east. Albert the Bear, after destruction of Saxon frontier settlement, conquers Przybyslaw, and appoints German count to rule and settles area with Germans.
1140 Papal bull re: Pomeranian bishopric fails to mention authority of Gniezno.
1141 Salomea and junior princes meet in Leczyca. Salomea plans to
pledge three-year-old Judyta to son of Grand Duke Vsevolod of
Kiev. Wladyslaw counters by marrying his son Boleslaw Wysoki
(the Tall) to Wierzchoslawa, Vsevolod's daughter.
Zdik, Bishop of Olomouc (Olmutz), missionary to Prussians fails due to lack of support from Polish authorities, possibly due to politics
1142 Wladyslaw (with Russians?) attacks brothers. Seizes several
cities. Archbishop (of Gniezno?) Jakub ze Znina, Krzywousty's
(second) wojewoda, Wszebor, and many other magnates rally to
Salomea's kids vs strong princeps. Neither side has decisive
1144 Wladyslaw sends troops to Vsevolod's campaign vs Volodimirko
of Galicia. Odon of Wielkopolska born to Mieszko Stary/Elzbieta.