These notes were compiled from English language resources as a personal reference for my historical re-enactment activities, were not originally intended as a formal scholarly work, or for public release. I am not a credentialed historian, and cannot read Polish or Latin. The bibliography may not include all sources. When sources disagreed, I chose the best synthesis in my own judgment. Comments and speculations are my own, and may not align with scholarly consensus.
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1145 Wladyslaw and Russians meet Juniors and Magnates along
mid-Pilica River. Juniors win with weaker forces, but not decisively
(possibly before Kievians arrive). Still faced with superior
force, Juniors negotiate retention of northern section of
Salomea's fief, and recognition as suzerain princes (in
presence of Russians!). Four castles and environs to
Wladyslaw, and Wizna (in Mazovia) to Kievians. Major victory
for Juniors/magnates both in territory and loss of 'face' and
authority by princeps.
Wladyslaw seeks to purge, and cow, magnates. Piotr Wlostowic, Major Magnate, especially in Silesia, wojewoda and national hero under Krzywousty (personally abducted Volodar of Przemysl to forestall invasion), famous for wealth and support of church, reputation abroad as sovereign prince, accused of collusion with Juniors. Though loyal supporter since Krzywousty's death, Wladyslaw has him imprisoned, blinded, exiled. Attempt to impress magnates backfires, loses many supporters, galvanizes opposition. Really stupid even if allegations true. Legend of personal grudge with Agnieszka causing fall. (Magnate magnus, Piotr may not have been properly impressed by Agnieszka's noble lineage, or new hair style.)
1146 Wladyslaw, Russians, Prussians, and Jadzwings launch triple
attack, devastating juniors. Wladyslaw pursues to Poznan.
During siege of Poznan, newly conquered areas rebel, and
Archbishop Jakub anathematizes Wladyslaw as enemy of peace,
and ally of pagans. Overconfident, Wladyslaw continues siege
until surprised by rebel relief force and routed. Wladyslaw
escapes to Krakow and, abandoned by allies and domestic
supporters, runs to Conrad III's court in Saxony via Bohemia.
Juniors take Wawel Castle (Krakow), and send Agnieszka and
children into exile with Wladyslaw. (No ransom even!)
1147 Saxons declare crusade vs Obodrites and Luticians. Granted
same indulgences as Holy Land crusaders. Czechs, Danes, Frisians,
and English join in, as does Poland under Mieszko Stary, even
though crusade is counter to Polish policy/interests. Effort
to appease Saxons in fear of Wladyslaw's return.
1150 Albert succeeds to Brandenberg, Jaska unable to oppose (yet).
1151 Wladyslaw's daughter, Ryksa, marries Alfonse VII of Castile, Emperor of Spain. Juniors marry sister Agnieszka to Mstislav Iziaslavovich (Riurik Dynasty of Volynia).
1153? Wladyslaw marries Iziaslav's sister, Eudoksia.
1154 Jaska, with much Polish support due to marriage to Piotr Wlostowic's daughter, takes Brandenberg while Albert the Bear is in Italy with Emperor. Jaska sufficiently in command to hold vs Albert on his return.
1157 Albert, and Vladislav of Bohemia granted permission for
campaign vs Poland to restore Wladyslaw, and avenge alleged aid to
1158 Boleslaw Kedzierzawy breaks treaty while Frederick is engaged in Italy; no troops, no Silesia for Wladyslaw.
1160 Henry (the Lion) Hohenstaufen, with Danes, attacks and kills Niklot, prince of the Eastern Obodrites. Niklot's sons continue to resist with aid from Princes Boguslaw and Kazimierz of Pomerania. Obodrites/Pomeranians exploit Welf/Hohenstaufen and Saxon/Dane rivalries to good effect.
1161 Wladyslaw III Laskonogi (Spindleshanks) born to Mieszko Stary/???.
1163 Wladyslaw dies. Under threat of new campaign, Boleslaw grants
Silesia to Wladyslaw's sons as a personal gift, forcing
renunciation of all hereditary rights, and retaining control
of some key cities.
Kazimierz marries Iziaslav's niece Halina (probably a Czech - Manteuffel).
1164 Wladyslaw's sons (the Nephews) consolidate and drive out
Boleslaw's troops. Long struggle ensues. Wladyslaw's two
oldest sons, Boleslaw Wysoki (the Tall), and Mieszko Platonogi
(Stumblefoot), solidly ally without internal dispute or
Nikot's oldest son Przybyslaw and the Pomeranians raise revolt in conquered Obodrite lands. Henry the Lion wins final battle. Begins importing settlers from Flanders.
1166 Welf/Hohenstaufen civil war in empire (again).
Boleslaw Kedzierzawy campaigns vs Prussians. Loses. Henryk of Sandomierz KIA. Henryk unmarried, names brother Kazimierz as heir. Older two brothers contest inheritance and Kazimierz gains only Wislica.
1167 Fearing Slav rebellion during civil war. Henry the Lion returns all Obodrite lands to Przybyslaw as vassal state. Obodrites faithful vassals ever after.
1168 Final conquest of Rugia by Danes.
1170 Mstislav dies. Sons inherit Volynia. (Kazimierz later aided these nephews [see 1182] as well as Vasilko Jaropolkovich of Drohiczyn).
1172 Magnates hold Diet in Milica and attempt to enlist Kazimierz in overthrow plot. Kazimierz too fond of eyesight to cross both brothers. Wladyslaw's nephews defeated and exiled from Silesia.
1173 Nephews repatriated to forestall restoration campaign by
1174 - 1179 Mozni oppose Mieszko Stary fearing restoration of Ducal Power. Mozni enlist Kazimierz who leads usurpation.
1177 Kazimierz welcomed by populace of Krakow, and admitted by city
garrison without a fight. Mieszko's eldest, Odon joins
revolt, causing Stary's supporters to desert, Mieszko Stary
and three sons from second marriage flee to Pomerania. The
Nephews fall out on different sides, Mieszko Platonogi
(supporting Stary), with Silesian Mozni, overthrows Boleslaw
Wysoki. Kazimierz intervenes to restore Boleslaw, and grants
lands to all to stop intrigues:
Kazimierz -- Seniorate (less share for Platonogi)
Odon -- Poznan
Leszek -- Kujavia
Wysoki -- Silesia
Platonogi -- Raciborz, Bytom, Oswiecim, Siewierz, and Chrzanow (to create loyalty through strong link to Malopolska)
Konrad -- Glogow (previously unlanded half-brother)
Boguslaw of Szczecin, lacking support from fragmented Poland, becomes Henry the Lion's (Welf) vassal. included in Princes of empire after Henry's fall (1181).
1180 Kazimierz Sprawiedliwy (the Just) confirmed as hereditary Prince of Krakow district, and Seniorate system abolished by diet of Mozni and Clergy at Leczyca. Support of bishops gained by renunciation of Ducal right of ius spolii. Support of clergy gains recognition by Pope Alexander III.
1181 Mieszko Stary, unable to gain Imperial support, attacks Wielkopolska with Pomeranians. Regains most of Wielkopolska, including Gniezno, unopposed by Kazimierz who conceded area as Mieszko's rightful province. Mieszko, unappeased, continues to plot and politic against Kazimierz. Allies with Boleslaw Wysoki, and courts Germans.
1182 (After heirless death of Vasilko of Drohiczyn (date?),
Kazimierz aids Mstislav's eldest son (his nephew) to throne of Brzesc.)
Kazimierz supports nephew vs rebellion, despite revolt by his own knights opposed to his Russian policy/entanglements. Kazimierz overcomes rebellion and internal revolt. Prince soon poisoned by conspirators in Brzesc, and Kazimierz helps Prince's younger brother, Roman, to throne in return for acknowledgment of Polish suzerainty.
1186 Leszek dies, Kazimierz annexes Mazovia.
1187 Jaroslav Osmomysl of Galicia dies. In succession war, Kazimierz supports Oleg vs brother Volodimir. Volodimir wins and also raids into Poland in revenge. Kazimierz overthrows Volodimir, who flees to Hungary, and puts Roman of Volynia on throne, expecting vassal oath. (Roman passes Volynia to his brother to rule in Galicia.) Hungarians, fearing Polish advances and seeking Galicia, restore Volodimir, and then replace him with Bela III's son Andras, thus expanding Hungary beyond the Carpathians.
1188 Volodimir escapes Hungarian incarceration and appeals to Emperor. Barbarossa, busy with crusades delegates restoration to vassal Kazimierz Sprawiedliwy, who had originally overthrown Volodimir!!
1189 Kazimierz's wojewoda, Mikolaj, leads successful campaign to restore Volodimir, alienating Hungary, and losing suzerainty over Galicia, and Volynia (since Roman had abdicated to rule Galicia). Serious bad luck. [Why not just throw the fight? Insufficient resistance?]
1190 - 1191 Kazimierz in Rus with strongest supporters. Conspiracy organized by Henryk Kietlicz, castellan of Krakow, due to opposition to Kazimierz's Hungarian/Russian policy and particular dislike/contempt for wojewoda Mikolaj, takes Krakow over strong defense, and places Mieszko Stary on throne.
1191 Kazimierz returns with Russian support and easily retakes Krakow.
1192 Pact signed with Hungary promising cooperation on matters of mutual interest, like Galicia. Pact negotiated by Bishop Pelka of Krakow, and Mikolaj. Opponents of Mikolaj and Kazimierz's policies quieted.
1193 Kazimierz campaigns vs pagan Jadzwings and their ally the Prince of Drohiczyn, to end raids on Mazovia. Prince deposed, Jadzwings defeated, looted and forced to pledge tribute to Krakow.
1194 Kazimierz, 56, dies suddenly during banquet. Poison likely.
Heirs very young. Mayhem and chaos assured in Poland.
"When the lookout leaves the prow of the ship, it crashes on the waves of the sea against the Syrtian sandbar, and the hulls of wrecked ships. Then the storm that churns up from the deep blows the oars, loosened and lost, all over the sea." -- Bishop Wincenty Kadlubek of Krakow, Polish Chronicler
Eldest son, Leszek Bialy (the White), succeeds. Last Princeps, rules (after regency?) 1202 - 1227.
Barraclough, G. (ed) Eastern and Western Europe in the Middle Ages. London. 1970
DVORNIK, FRANCIS THE MAKING OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, 2ND ED. GULF BREEZE, FL. ACAD. INT'L PRESS 1974
GORSKI, ANDREW - ORCHARD LAKE SCHOOLS, MICHIGAN
Jazdzewski, K. Poland. London 1965
Kloczowski, J. (ed) The Christian Community of Medieval Poland. Wroclaw, 1981
KNOLL, PAUL W. - U.S.C. - THE RISE OF THE POLISH MONARCHY: PIAST POLAND IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, 1320-1370 [CHICAGO: UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, 1972]
Kronika Wielkopolska - Written in 1280 by an unnamed Poznan Clergyman
LAZENBY, FRANCIS D. - POLISH REVIEW 11, #4 (1966):5-9 (TRANS OF PART OF CHRONICLES OF GALL ANONIM)
MANTEUFFEL, TADEUSZ - FORMATION OF THE POLISH STATE. (Andrew Gorski, Trans., Wayne State University Press. Detroit 1982)
MEDIEVALIA ET HUMANISTICA (JOURNAL) P.1964
L'EUROPE AUX IX-XI SIECLES. AUX ORIGIONES DES ETATS NATIONAUX KOSCIUSZKO FOUNDATION
Milosz, C. - The History of Polish Lit. Berkeley, 1983 (Bib. of Polish Lit. in Eng. Trans.)
Wagner, W.J. Polish Law Through the Ages, Stanford, 1970
WOJCIECHOWSKI, ZYGMUNT - THE POLISH STATE IN THE MIDDLE AGES: A HISTORY OF ITS STRUCTURE, 1945(FR. TRANS.)
Vana, Z. - The World of the Ancient Slavs. London 1971